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20/10/10

Fire et reconstruction

Fire and reconstruction

En le ano 1666 un grand incendie destructed grand part de le citie. Le reconstruccion dured dec anos et le architect sed Christopher Wren, que faced much de le eglises destructed, entre els le Catedral de Sant Paul, onde repose le heroes de le britanik nacion. Le citie vice have acelered much en le XVIII Siecle et a le inicio de le XX siecle, quand London es le citie plus grand de le munde. Le local de administracion cherched conduire este expansión para placere un infraestructure a le citie. En 1855 con este objetive, se cread le Metropolitan Board of Works. En 1889 le MBW se invalide et se creare le London County, governated desde le premiere asemble elegide de tot le London "alonge ", por le London County Council. En le Second Mondial Guerre, London send bombarded por le Luftwaffe, con le atak de le bombardements en le Bataille de Inglaterre . Le incursion mated a quasi 30.000 londinenses et destructe algunes zones de le citie, reconstructe en varios styles architectural en le decades sucesive. Le espansion de London se ralentized en le fin de le Second Mondial Guerre con le anexion de distint terrens et le cuidade de un vert anille in torno a le citie (Green Belt). Le 6 of julie de 2005, le International Olimpik Comite electe a London como site de le XXX Moderne Olimpik Games de 2012. London es le premiere citie de le munde que have tri edicions de games, post de le IV edicion de 1908 et la XIV en le 1948. Post de que la XIII edision se suspenderie por la Second Mundial Guerre. Le Grand London comprende la London City et le 32 districts (incluide le Westminster City). Le fluid dominant de le vita de London es le Citie de Westminster (que comprende also gran part de West End) principal district cultural, de entertainment et de consume. Le citie of London (also conocide como Square Mile or City) es le principal centre bankarie de le munde et le principal centre de european negocies. .

In 1966 up to 430 acres were affected by the fire, much of them within the city walls. Over 13,000 houses, 87 parish churches, 6 chapels, 3 city gates, four bridges, 52 guild halls, a prison and many famous and important buildings had been destroyed, leaving ten of thousands homeless and ruined. Contemporary estimates claim the damage to buildings neared eight million pounds, along with over £2 million worth of goods; the city government's annual income was just £12,000. In contrast, and even though we don't know the exact figure, the death toll was low. Official records cite only five deaths - the Farriner's maid, a shoemaker, an old man who died trying to get a blanket from St. Paul's Cathedral and two people who fell into cellars – but figures eight and seventeen are often given. The true number might have been more, but nowhere near the three thousand supposedly killed by a fire in the thirteenth century. Common lore claims the Great Fire stopped the plague in London, saving more lives than it cost. While the fire clearly did have some effect on retarding the plague by driving out or killing the flea carrying rats, historians don't believe fire was the sole reason. Many of the embryonic suburbs and most affected parishes also recovered from plague in 1666 without the aid of cleansing flame and even a geographically wider explanation – the bitter 1665/6 winter – isn’t accepted as effective enough. The real reason is probably a combination of many factors and the fire is simply a coincidence. The incentives to rebuild quickly were huge, and not just because of the thousands who needed re-homing. London was England's capital city, the third biggest in Europe, the hub of the nation's prestige, government and economic power. To have left it in ruin, to have rebuilt slowly or unsurely, would have been to damage England on many levels. For example, custom duties gathered by the king fell over £200,000 in 1667; unsurprisingly, he was a major driving force behind the reconstruction. The drive to rebuild was also present in architects and civic leaders, many of whom had dreamt of wiping London flat and designing a glorious, modern city. In addition, the King and the London Corporation initiated three grand structures to show the world how London was back in business. The Royal Exchange and a new Customs House had vital economic functions, but the Monument – sixty-two metres of Doric column with a sculpted flaming top – was pure symbolism. Wren provided the column, which is supposedly as high as the distance between the Monument and Farriner's bakery, and Robert Hooke the sculpture. Wren contributed much more, including fifty-one churches and a new St. Paul's Cathedral, creating his reputation as the architect who built London.


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 London.  ENGLAND


London es le capital de England et de le Unid Monarkie. Es situed at le rivere Tamesis en le sudest de le isle de Gran Bretaigne et have plus de du milenies. Continue

Etimologie


Le etimologie de London es un misterie, la primere explicacion etimologik se pove atribuer a le livre Historie Regum Britanniae de Geoffrey of Monmouth. Continue

Historie


Haveva asentaments britane por le area, le primer grand asentament sed founded per le romans en le ano 43 con le nome Londinium, post de le conquest romane de Bretania. Continue

Fire et reconstruction


En le ano 1666 un grand incendie destructed grand part de le citie. Le reconstruccion dured dec anos et le architect sed Christopher Wren, que faced much de le eglises destructed, entre els le Catedral de Sant Paul, onde repose le heroes de le britanik nacion. Continue

Demografie


Con le industrialisacion, le populacion de London cresced rapidement en le XIX Siecle et comences de le XX Siecle, el arrived a ser le citie plus populed de le munde jusque eser surpased per New York en 1925. Continue

Etnik grupes


En le cense, le 71,15% de eses octe millions de habitantes tenen como grupe de origine etnik le race blanc, clasificads como britaniks blanks (59, 79%) irlandeses blanks (3, 07%) or "otre blanks " (8, 29%). Continue

Geografie et climate


Le navigable rivere Tamesis intersecte le citie actual et se divide en du mities. Le rivere tened un grand influencie en le development de le citie. Continue

Central London


Le "City" es le principal district financial de le Unid Monarkie et un de le plus important de le munde. Continue

West Final


Le West End es le principal district para le ocie et compra. Le place plus conocide de le zone es Trafalgar Square et Oxford Street es un strade para le compra famose in le munde. Continue

Est London


Le zone de London est es ancore en fase de reconstruction (project Tamesis Gateway). Continue

Est Final


Proxime a le place onde le antik port de London have sed tradicionalment, es le place onde le inmigrantes arriveva por mare, encontrand su primere residencie en London. Continue

Area portuarie


Docklands have developed enormement desde le inicies de le anos 80. A le principie de ese decenie much almacens abandoned en le area de Wapping debuted a se transformer en estudies para artistes et estudies de bon price. Continue

 West London


London west es conoced por su elegant districts residencial, como Notting Hill, actualment incluse plus celebre con le homonime film de Hugh Grant et Julia Roberts de 1999. Continue

Sud London


London sud comprende districts como Wimbledon (celebre como site de le homonime championat de Tenis), Croydon, Bermondsey et Dulwich. Le reconstrucion de Elephant and Castle, un vechie district a le centre, sed comenced en 2006. Continue

Nord London


Le nord de London inclure enclavements como Hampstead et Highgate, onde se respire un aire de petit citie. North London es le zone con plus colines, much de le que done excelent viced panoramiks urban. Continue

Districts


Le Grand London se dividi en le Citie de London et en 32 "London Boroughs " (municipies). Le quarts es la principal forme de goverment en London et develope much civik servicies en su area de competencie. Continue

Economie


London es un de le principal centres de internacional negocies, ensemble con New York, Tokyo or Paris. Continue

Transport


Le publik medies de transport de London no es simplement medie par transferer pasegers, es autentik nacional simboles, et ese rason face de els le publicitarie medies plus famose et reconoced de le munde. Continue

Metro


Le London Underground (habitualment nomined "The Tube") sed le pimere ret de metro que haved en Europa, et es un de le plus grands et longs de le munde. Continue

Taxi


Le "black cab" de London es un important simbole de le citie. Have un maxime de 5 places, par le pasegers, es le medie plus recomandable si se porte bagage or si simplement se ame voyager sin le confusion de le autobus et de le metre. Continue

Aeroports


London have varies important aeroports. Continue

Trens et estacions


London es unid per le ret ferroviarie nacional a Europa et a tot le aeroports. El tene quasi 50 estacions ferroviarie disemined por le citie. Le trens et estacions de London es controled por diverse privat enterprises. Continue

Educacion


En London se encontra le "University of London" (Universitie de London), un federacion de colegies que inclure dudec universities de London, dec-du institutes et du universities extra London. Have otre colegies par un total de tridec universities. Continue

Turisme


London es un de le capitals plus visited de le munde. Le principal turistik atractions es located en le centre, comprendend le City et le West End con cinemas, pubs, clubs, theatres, negocies et restaurants. Continue



Contact
  

 London.  ENGLAND


London es le capital de England et de le Unid Monarkie. Es situed at le rivere Tamesis en le sudest de le isle de Gran Bretaigne et have plus de du milenies. Continue

Etimologie


Le etimologie de London es un misterie, la primere explicacion etimologik se pove atribuer a le livre Historie Regum Britanniae de Geoffrey of Monmouth. Continue

Historie


Haveva asentaments britane por le area, le primer grand asentament sed founded per le romans en le ano 43 con le nome Londinium, post de le conquest romane de Bretania. Continue

Fire et reconstruction


En le ano 1666 un grand incendie destructed grand part de le citie. Le reconstruccion dured dec anos et le architect sed Christopher Wren, que faced much de le eglises destructed, entre els le Catedral de Sant Paul, onde repose le heroes de le britanik nacion. Continue

Demografie


Con le industrialisacion, le populacion de London cresced rapidement en le XIX Siecle et comences de le XX Siecle, el arrived a ser le citie plus populed de le munde jusque eser surpased per New York en 1925. Continue

Etnik grupes


En le cense, le 71,15% de eses octe millions de habitantes tenen como grupe de origine etnik le race blanc, clasificads como britaniks blanks (59, 79%) irlandeses blanks (3, 07%) or "otre blanks " (8, 29%). Continue

Geografie et climate


Le navigable rivere Tamesis intersecte le citie actual et se divide en du mities. Le rivere tened un grand influencie en le development de le citie. Continue

Central London


Le "City" es le principal district financial de le Unid Monarkie et un de le plus important de le munde. Continue

West Final


Le West End es le principal district para le ocie et compra. Le place plus conocide de le zone es Trafalgar Square et Oxford Street es un strade para le compra famose in le munde. Continue

Est London


Le zone de London est es ancore en fase de reconstruction (project Tamesis Gateway). Continue

Est Final


Proxime a le place onde le antik port de London have sed tradicionalment, es le place onde le inmigrantes arriveva por mare, encontrand su primere residencie en London. Continue

Area portuarie


Docklands have developed enormement desde le inicies de le anos 80. A le principie de ese decenie much almacens abandoned en le area de Wapping debuted a se transformer en estudies para artistes et estudies de bon price. Continue

 West London


London west es conoced por su elegant districts residencial, como Notting Hill, actualment incluse plus celebre con le homonime film de Hugh Grant et Julia Roberts de 1999. Continue

Sud London


London sud comprende districts como Wimbledon (celebre como site de le homonime championat de Tenis), Croydon, Bermondsey et Dulwich. Le reconstrucion de Elephant and Castle, un vechie district a le centre, sed comenced en 2006. Continue

Nord London


Le nord de London inclure enclavements como Hampstead et Highgate, onde se respire un aire de petit citie. North London es le zone con plus colines, much de le que done excelent viced panoramiks urban. Continue

Districts


Le Grand London se dividi en le Citie de London et en 32 "London Boroughs " (municipies). Le quarts es la principal forme de goverment en London et develope much civik servicies en su area de competencie. Continue

Economie


London es un de le principal centres de internacional negocies, ensemble con New York, Tokyo or Paris. Continue

Transport


Le publik medies de transport de London no es simplement medie par transferer pasegers, es autentik nacional simboles, et ese rason face de els le publicitarie medies plus famose et reconoced de le munde. Continue

Metro


Le London Underground (habitualment nomined "The Tube") sed le pimere ret de metro que haved en Europa, et es un de le plus grands et longs de le munde. Continue

Taxi


Le "black cab" de London es un important simbole de le citie. Have un maxime de 5 places, par le pasegers, es le medie plus recomandable si se porte bagage or si simplement se ame voyager sin le confusion de le autobus et de le metre. Continue

Aeroports


London have varies important aeroports. Continue

Trens et estacions


London es unid per le ret ferroviarie nacional a Europa et a tot le aeroports. El tene quasi 50 estacions ferroviarie disemined por le citie. Le trens et estacions de London es controled por diverse privat enterprises. Continue

Educacion


En London se encontra le "University of London" (Universitie de London), un federacion de colegies que inclure dudec universities de London, dec-du institutes et du universities extra London. Have otre colegies par un total de tridec universities. Continue

Turisme


London es un de le capitals plus visited de le munde. Le principal turistik atractions es located en le centre, comprendend le City et le West End con cinemas, pubs, clubs, theatres, negocies et restaurants. Continue



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